negative list

Negative list means opportunity for democracy LOST. -----all service sectors and modes of supply ARE INCLUDED BY DEFAULT. Negative list is also an implied standstill.


The trilemma of hyper-globalization.

WTO GATS Glossary

This Public Citizen PDF includes a great deal of useful information on GATS, for example, how schedules are written.

governmental authority exclusion

These are articles on the all important exclusion that defines what member government activities can be called "public services" and be excluded from the onerous GATS rules.

Trojan Horse Clauses

Two authoritative presentations to Australia's government by Australian trade expert and legal scholar Matthew Rimmer. They explain a lot of the concepts in trade agreements. The name of these two papers is very appropriate - it describes what they do well.


These are external links mostly, pertaining to the plurilateral Trade in Services Agreement, which aims to privatize and globalize what once were public services, turning lots of good jobs into precarious labor and freezing government's ability to fix even the most serious problems, except in the most limited way possible. This is a huge mistake.


"GATS" is the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services.

progressive liberalization

the entire text of GATS' 'progressive liberalization' (Part IV) Progressive liberalization (along with similar concepts like standstill/rollback, the ratchet effect, or "trade creep") Lock in all deregulation, preventing re-regulation, nomatter what people vote for in afflicted countries. Once a service has been privatized, countries get a situation that they cannot afford to reverse. This traps them in a race to the bottom whose only endgame is a complete capture of government where government is replaced by corporate rule, because re-regulation of corporations is prohibited by trade treaties. Inhabitants have to move to other countries that have not adopted the particular bad policies yet. But not under Mode 4, because Mode 4 disenfranchises and disempowers workers. There really is no acceptable option.


Criticism of, and content on the "Trade related aspects of intellectual property rights" 'agreement'

services of general interest/services of general economic interest

These new EU-official terms are intended to replace the GATS-ambiguous terms used by Americans and Britons (in the EU) and clearly explain the definition of what services are supposed to be commercial (including most of what used to be called public services) and what are the government itself and its functional elements.

in competition with one or more service suppliers

What does "in competition with one or more service suppliers" mean in GATS and other FTAS that borrow the GATS definition? (of "services supplied in the exercise of governmental authority" i.e. public services )


DS503 is a WTO dispute that was filed in 2016 by India against the US. It contains a number of innocent-looking requests that when investigated...