Glossary

Glossary on free trade agreements and health part 1: the shift from multilateralism and the rise of ‘WTO-Plus’ provisions (2021)

The global trading system has undergone a shift away from multilateral trade negotiations to a ‘spaghetti-bowl’ of regional and bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). In this two-part glossary, we discuss why this shift has occurred, focusing on how it poses new challenges for public health. Specifically, we introduce key terms that shape this new trading environment and explain them through a public health lens. Part 1 of this glossary focuses on provisions in FTAs that build on previous agreements of the World Trade Organization (WTO). These provisions are commonly designated as ‘WTO-Plus’. This approach continues into part 2 of the glossary, which also considers components of FTAs that have no precedent within WTO treaties. Following a broader discussion of how the current political context and the COVID-19 pandemic shape the contemporary trade environment, part 2 considers the main areas of trade and health policy incoherence as well as recommendations to address them. This article is made freely available for use in accordance with BMJ’s website terms and conditions for the duration of the covid-19 pandemic or until otherwise determined by BMJ. You may use, download and print the article for any lawful, non-commercial purpose (including text and data mining) provided that all copyright notices and trade marks are retained. https://bmj.com/coronavirus/usage http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2020-215104

BMJ Glossary on free trade agreements and health part 2: new trade rules and new urgencies in the context of COVID-19

Part 1 of this glossary provided a brief background on the rise of regional/bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) and described the health implications of new trade obligations that figure prominently in current and recent trade negotiations, focusing on those provisions that build on previous agreements of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This approach continues into part 2 of the glossary, which also considers components of FTAs that have no precedent within WTO treaties. Following a broader discussion of how the current political context and the COVID-19 pandemic shape the contemporary trade environment, part 2 considers the main areas of trade and health policy incoherence as well as recommendations to address them. ------------------------------------------ This article is made freely available for use in accordance with BMJ’s website terms and conditions for the duration of the covid-19 pandemic or until otherwise determined by BMJ. You may use, download and print the article for any lawful, non-commercial purpose (including text and data mining) provided that all copyright notices and trade marks are retained. https://bmj.com/coronavirus/usage http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2020-215105

BMJ Glossary on the World Trade Organisation and public health: part 2 (2006)

Abstract Part 1 of this glossary introduced different health and trade arguments, overviewed the history of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), defined key “trade talk” terms, and reviewed three WTO treaties concerned with trade in goods (GATT 1994, the Agreement on Agriculture, and the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures). Part 2 reviews five more agreements and the growing number of bilateral and regional trade agreements, and concludes with a commentary on different strategies proposed to ensure that health is not compromised by trade liberalisation treaties. View Full Text http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2005.038950

non discrimination

It's all a big setup. Our anti-discrimination laws are not discrimination, as the neoliberals insist. They need not be changed. The period of progress is not over, its just beginning.

state owned enterprises

State owned enterprises are deprecated as "monopolies" officially, a word which makes creating new ones FTA-illegal, except in dire emergencies in WTO members, The WTO (and also associated but separate agreements such as the US backed TISA which is supposed to be merged with the WTO GATS eventually) is attempting to privatize all of them eventually. So they are framed as a quasi-crime, a sort of theft of profitmaking entitlements from business. Similarly, that means all businesses everywhere, and their workers may be included in the entitlement, its not limited by country.

transnational capitalist class

Trade deals effectuate an increase in the huge amounts of inequality in the world, and its partially done by means of what amounts to a cheap lawyers trick.

likeness

"The existing (WTO) case-law on non-discrimination indicates that when defining likeness for the purpose of assessing regulation, one should rather focus on the interchangeability of the services by applying a cross-price elasticity test. In Japan – Alcoholic Beverages II, the Panel has stated explicitly that “the appropriate test to define whether two products are ‘like’

services of general economic interest

Services which do not qualify for any governmental authority exclusion, i.e. commercial services with a shrinking public component (the public component must shrink, and transition to market based entirely.) Note, this only applies in services with government involvement at the federal, state or local level or when the government has control or where tax money is used see definition of "all measures of general application".

harmonization

Harmonization in services, means a race to the "least common denominator" - ie. race to the bottom on everything, not a race to the top. It also means destruction of the social contract by stealth.

authoritarian bargain

Dictatorships stay in power by striking an economic bargain with their elites, who agree to give up freedom in return for material advantages over the other residents of these often remarkably poor countries, often in the form of patronage arrangements.

DS503

DS503 is a WTO dispute that was filed in 2016 by India against the US. It contains a number of innocent-looking requests that when investigated...