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Temporary labor migration programs Governance, migrant worker rights, and recommendations for the U.N. Global Compact for Migration

By Daniel Costa and Philip Martin • Economic Policy Institute August 1, 2018. The suggestion made that only some inherently temporary jobs should rely on migrant work and workers is a good one but its quixotic and shamefully unrealistic with all of Wall Street counting the gains to be had from turning literally most work into precariatized, temporary labor. Even despite coronavirus, they are determined to do it, "on principle" (Note: One might get a dangerously ignorant false impression on the situation from this paper, if one doesnt realize how much power is being brought to bear to crack our ability to regulate work-related labor. The WTO wants to be put in charge - and has since it was still its predecessor, GATT in the 1980s. In fact putting "Services" under the WTO was the main reason it was formed.) (The effect on wages and the existence/sustainability of having a middle class globally will be astronomical.)

GATS Mode 4: Movement of Natural Persons and Protection of Migrant Workers’ Rights (International Labor Organization)

GATS Mode 4: Movement of Natural Persons and Protection of Migrant Workers’ Rights By Pradip Bhatnagar A Paper presented during the Challenges and Opportunities of Bilateral and Multilateral Arrangements for the Mobility of Health Professionals and Other Skilled Migrant Workers Training Programme held on 8-10 October 2014, Philippines (note: Migrant Workers in this context are usually high skilled, professional laborers, such as doctors, nurses, computer programmers, engineers, coders, administrative workers, teachers, or executives.) Other jobs don't matter as much profit wise so the body shop firms are not interested in them, but ultimately, like shale gas etc, they will in turn come under the same pressures.

Migration Policy Institute's "Migrants' Human Rights: Could GATS Help?" ignores core facts about GATS Mode Four, whitewashes its problems.

NOTE: The WTO is completely human rights agnostic. And as such GATS Mode Four favors multinational staffing (i.e. "body shop") corporations moving to countries with very low wages and levels of regulation that are signatory to many trade agreements, in a sense forum shopping for the countries with the lowest wages and worker rights. (which will often apply in lieu of a labor consuming country having other laws, other laws that may not even be applicable if the work is done under a trade agreement, for example, see WTO document T/N/S/14 for the arguments against national wage laws applicability. Trade agreements are also harmonizing other regulations downward to the lowest common denominator levels. When the WTO talks about "wage parity" for example, it means the lowest legal wage. i.e minimum wage, not prevailing wages in a field.

Temporary Movement of Labor Fuels GATS Debate (Migration Policy Institute)

(I disagree with many of the assumptions made by this article and similar articles. In particular, I see the so called "efficiency gains" advocates claim from deals like GATS, TISA, NAFTA, and similar as losses. Unambiguously.) On the other hand, I feel traditional immigration is a gain, the kind of immigration where people move permanently with their families, that isnt used as a substitute for educating and taking care of the needs of our own workforce. In other words, its seen by myself and many others as a means of reducing the wages of workers more than anything else. Part of a war on the continued existence of a middle class.

Edward Alden: India's landmark WTO challenge to US

In the midst of a xenophobic U.S. presidential campaign in which candidates in both parties have harangued China and Japan over their trade policies, and leading Republicans have called for a "great wall" to keep out immigrants from Mexico and Central America, one country has quietly refused to take it any longer. The government of India filed suit on March 3 in the World Trade Organization (WTO) seeking to overturn a new U.S. tax on high-skilled migrants that India says discriminates against its citizens and would damage some of its most successful companies. The case marks the first time that a country's immigration laws have been challenged using the rules of a trade agreement. And despite the logic of India's action, it may well be the last such case. With tariffs on imports already very low in most countries, economists have argued that easing restrictive immigration laws in advanced countries would now do far more than additional trade liberalization to boost global growth. Michael Clemens of the Center for Global Development has written that immigration restrictions are the "greatest single class of distortions in the global economy," amounting to "trillion dollar bills on the sidewalk" if such distortions could be eliminated.......

Statement from the world's Trade Unions on the GATS negotiations (from 2002) bears reading again today.

Reading the BIDEN-SANDERS UNITY TASK FORCE RECOMMENDATIONS COMBATING THE CLIMATE CRISIS AND PURSUING ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE I am struck by how many parts of the statement are obviously being blocked by trade agreements and the conspicuous omission of mentions of the same. Therefore I think it bears re-reading the warnings here from 2002. GATS has not gone away. In order to end the spiral into global corporatism and privatization and outsourcing/offshoring of most services. The only services which can survive are defined in such a limited manner as far as I can see there wont be any fairly soon., it is urgently necessary to leave these trade agreements and not write any new ones. Both parties must be having a huge laugh over this. This is not a joke, however. They are not going to help us, they are escorting the majority of Americans off the edge of the economic map.

Resveratrol And Pterostilbene Potently Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vitro

The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has an enormous impact on human health and economy1. In search for therapeutic options, researchers have proposed resveratrol, a food supplement with known antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties as an advantageous antiviral therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection2–4. Here, we provide evidence that both resveratrol and its metabolically more stable structural analog, pterostilbene, exhibits potent antiviral properties against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Resveratrol and pterostilbene showed antiviral activity in African green monkey kidney cells and in human primary bronchial epithelial cells cultured in an air-liquid interface system. Mechanistic analyses demonstrated that both compounds actively interfere with the post-entry steps of virus replication cycle and their antiviral activity is long-lasting. Collectively, our data indicate that resveratrol and pterostilbene are promising antiviral compounds to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection and advocate evaluation of these compounds in clinical trials

The Looming GATS Conflict with Capital Controls (2013)

Tucker, The Looming GATS Conflict with Capital Controls (2013). in Kevin Gallagher and Leonardo Stanley (eds.), Global Financial Reform and Trade Rules: The Need for Reconciliation, (Boston: Boston University, 2013).,, To Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2379257

WTO Conflict with Financial Re-Regulation

The General Agreement on Trade in Services does impose limits on many developing countries’ ability to regulate the financial sector. A response to the article “Regulatory Freedom under GATS: Financial Services Sector” by BK Zutshi, which argued otherwise. (by Todd Tucker and Jayati Ghosh)

The Global South Needs a Debt Write-Off

"Global South economies like Zambia’s are being battered by the coronavirus. We must write-off their debt now. As stock markets in the rich world cling on to the gains made on the back of government and central bank largesse, emerging market economies are still being battered by the pandemic." (There is a linkage between the Third World Debt and trade in services deals like the GATS. And its not a pretty one.)

Non-Discrimination and the Pillars of International Economic Law – Comparative Analysis and Building Coherency

Nicolas F. Diebold University of Lucerne Date Written: June 30, 2010 Abstract This working paper was presented at the Second Biennial Global Conference of the Society of International Economic Law (SIEL) 2010 in Barcelona, available on SSRN and as IILJ Emerging Scholars Paper 18 (2010). The final version is published uner the title 'Standards of Non-Discrimination in International Econocmic Law' 60 International and Comparative Law Quarterly (2011), 831-865. The principle of non-discrimination constitutes a corner-stone in different fields of international economic law, notably international trade in goods and services as well as intellectual property and investment protection. While its basic rationale appears to be straight forward, the application of the different elements which constitute a non-discrimination obligation has proven to be most complicated. Due to the high fragmentation in international economic law, adjudicating bodies are applying different interpretations and standards with regard to ‘less favourable treatment,’ ‘likeness,’ ‘regulatory purpose’, and ‘necessity’. This article shows the different theories for each of these elements on the examples of WTO law, NAFTA, investment protection and EU law and demonstrates how these theories affect the scope and liberalizing effect of the non-discrimination obligation. The article then attempts to develop a coherent factor-based application of non-discrimination rules suitable for all fields of international economic law. The article submits the theory that the elements of nondiscrimination should not be applied as strict legal conditions which must be proven by a complainant, but as a range of soft-factors which may be weighed and balanced by the adjudicating bodies. Keywords: Non-Discrimination, National Treatment, Like Products, Like Circumstances, Less Favourable Treatment, WTO, GATT, GATS, NAFTA, Bilateral Investment Treaties

Trade Agreements and (Mutual) Recognition of Professional Qualifications

by Julia Nielsen of OECD This chapter explores the coverage of recognition of professional qualifications by the World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and a range of bilateral and regional trade agreements. It also provides a brief overview of what has been achieved to date in professional recognition internationally and the contribution that trade agreements might provide in increasing the transparency of professional recognition across borders. It also offers some preliminary thoughts on the relationship between cross-border education, recognition of professional qualifications and quality assurance in higher education. In recent times, a number of factors – increasing economic globalisation, reductions in transportation and communication costs, significant (temporary and permanent) migration flows, and the increasingly international labour market for the highly skilled – have led to a growing demand for greater recognition of foreign qualifications. The range of groups with an interest in the recognition of foreign qualifications is also expanding – in addition to universities assessing whether students should be accepted for further study, employers, professional associations and licensing bodies, as well as migration authorities, are also increasingly requiring information on the recognition of foreign qualifications. Many of these same factors have formed the backdrop for the growth in international trade in services. International trade in a range of services – for example, health and education services, or professional services such as accounting and engineering – is often conducted via the temporary movement of individuals seeking to supply these services