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United Nations (Service Sectors) Sectoral Classification List (W/120) This is the service sector list that the WTO GATS uses.

The services sectoral classification list (W/120) is a comprehensive list of services sectors and sub-sectors covered under the GATS. It was compiled by the WTO in July 1991 and its purpose was to facilitate the Uruguay Round negotiations, ensuring cross-country comparability and consistency of the commitments undertaken. The 160 sub-sectors are defined as aggregate of the more detailed categories contained in the United Nations provisional Central Product Classification (CPC). The list is also available at the WTO website at: http://tsdb.wto.org/Includes/docs/W120_E.doc

Open letter asking 37 WTO Members to declare themselves eligible to import medicines manufactured under compulsory license in another country, under 31bis of TRIPS Agreement

Background In 2001, the World Trade Organization (WTO) began negotiations on the rules regarding patents and access to medicine. While several issues were clarified and resolved in the November 2001 “Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health”, the negotiations took nearly two more years to adopt on August 30, 2003, a decision that was a limited “waiver of the export restriction” on medicines and diagnostic tests manufactured under a compulsory license. The final resolution was complicated. Among the controversial features was the definition of an “eligible importing member”, which allowed WTO members to declare themselves ineligible in some cases or in all cases. In 2017, this decision became a formal amendment to the TRIPS agreement. Today 37 members of the WTO are listed as ineligible to import medicines manufactured in another country under a compulsory license, including the governments of Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, United States, and the European Union, including the following member states: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden. On April 7, 2020, more than 30 groups and three dozen experts on health, law and trade sent an open letter to those 37 WTO members, asking that “countries to notify the WTO that they have changed their policy and now considers itself an eligible importing country, and in addition, to also use whatever legal means are available to revoke the opt-out as importing members, for goods manufactured under a compulsory license.”

Stop using big Internet companies, especially for email, and start providing REAL phone numbers that ring to people, not voicemail.

(Other big companies that provide "free email" or "social networks" are Non-private and inherently problematic). Journalists in particular should provide better addresses (NOT Gmail or Twitter, or companies that use gmail as their provider) than ones that data mine email and delete messages arbitrarily. If you dont have one, supply a phone number that does not use voicemail and say so. Otherwise well connected MITM attacks can be mounted which result in people never getting left messages.

Returning to a fact-based society

As we're being ruled by a cult that is promoting a simulacrum of non-fact, freeing ourselves of it requires a return to and an embrace of factual reality and behavior.

Certain U.S. Laws for Foreign Workers Draw Fire from India in the WTO (US Congress research "CRS" report)

This is an arguably incomplete, dismissive Congressional Research Reports report (PDF) on the DS503 case, but it fails to portray the situation with the needed urgency. . Note that they say that there is a possibility of the US losing the case, and having to modify behavior on the contested parts of our work visa system, which includes the visa quotas that limit the numbers of work visas granted per year. The effect of massive job outsourcing on workers is that many job ads turn out to be fake, using up jobseekers energy. It's only because of the quotas that far more jobs that can be, are not currently offshored. But the amount might rise very substantially. A very bad idea in this time of falling employment. GATS Mode Four and Three should be reduced or eliminated, not expanded. Professor Alan Blinder of Princeton found that 26% of all US jobs could be outsourced and offshored. A replication study of his study, attempting to verify his work found that actually 46% of our jobs are in immediate danger of outsourcing, But they left public services, the main target of GATS, out. So the actual number likely to be outsourced is potentially significantly higher.

Message to NGOs that should be obvious.

NGOS that are hoping to bring about social change should not use companies - like the biggest Internet companies, for ANYTHING. Not just critical infrastructure services like email, telephone, etc. ANYTHING.

Lowered insulin price should be made permanent

the Lilly company has temporarily lowered the price of insulin to $35/month. As anybody who reads the paper knows, LOTS of Americans, both young and old, are dying because they cannot afford insulin's insane price.

Biden, like Trump is not even remotely progressive

Both represent an attempt to legitimize a global capture scheme that is being forced upon us to legitimate itself. Be aware that neither could fulfill promises to their constituents that they are making, because all that policy space was taken off the table in the case of policy on services, 80% of a modern economy, by GATS, in the 90s.

services of general economic interest

Services which do not qualify for any governmental authority exclusion, i.e. commercial services with a shrinking public component (the public component must shrink, and transition to market based entirely.) Note, this only applies in services with government involvement at the federal, state or local level or when the government has control or where tax money is used see definition of "all measures of general application".

Resveratrol inhibits rhinovirus replication and expression of inflammatory mediators in nasal epithelia.

Antiviral Res. 2015 Nov;123:15-21. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.08.010. Epub 2015 Aug 19. Resveratrol inhibits rhinovirus replication and expression of inflammatory mediators in nasal epithelia. Mastromarino P1, Capobianco D2, Cannata F2, Nardis C2, Mattia E2, De Leo A2, Restignoli R3, Francioso A4, Mosca L4. Author information Abstract Human rhinoviruses (HRV), the cause of common colds, are the most frequent precipitants of acute exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as causes of other serious respiratory diseases. No vaccine or antiviral agents are available for the prevention or treatment of HRV infection. Resveratrol exerts antiviral effect against different DNA and RNA viruses. The antiviral effect of a new resveratrol formulation containing carboxymethylated glucan was analyzed in H1HeLa cell monolayers and ex vivo nasal epithelia infected with HRV-16. Virus yield was evaluated by plaque assay and expression of viral capsid proteins by Western blot. IL-10, IFN-β, IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES levels were evaluated by ELISA assay. ICAM-1 was assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Resveratrol exerted a high, dose-dependent, antiviral activity against HRV-16 replication and reduced virus-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and RANTES to levels similar to that of uninfected nasal epithelia. Basal levels of IL-6 and RANTES were also significantly reduced in uninfected epithelia confirming an anti-inflammatory effect of the compound. HRV-induced expression of ICAM-1 was reversed by resveratrol. Resveratrol may be useful for a therapeutic approach to reduce HRV replication and virus-induced cytokine/chemokine production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Human rhinovirus; Inflammatory mediators; Nasal epithelia; Resveratrol PMID: 26296578 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.08.010

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol in airway disease.

Respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a significant and increasing global health problem. These diseases are characterized by airway inflammation, which develops in response to various stimuli. In asthma, inflammation is driven by exposure to a variety of triggers, including allergens and viruses, which activate components of both the innate and acquired immune responses. In COPD, exposure to cigarette smoke is the primary stimulus of airway inflammation. Activation of airway inflammatory cells leads to the release of excessive quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative stress. Antioxidants provide protection against the damaging effects of oxidative stress and thus may be useful in the management of inflammatory airways disease. Resveratrol, a polyphenol that demonstrates both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory functions, has been shown to improve outcomes in a variety of diseases, in particular, in cancer. We review the evidence for a protective role of resveratrol in respiratory disease. Mechanisms of resveratrol action that may be relevant to respiratory disease are described. We conclude that resveratrol has potential as a therapeutic agent in respiratory disease, which should be further investigated.

Resveratrol as a potential therapeutic drug for respiratory system diseases

Respiratory system diseases are common and major ailments that seriously endanger human health. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin, is considered an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer agent. Thanks to its wide range of biological activities, resveratrol has become a hotspot in many fields, including respiratory system diseases. Indeed, research has demonstrated that resveratrol is helpful to relieve pulmonary function in the general population. Meanwhile, growing evidence indicates that resveratrol plays a protective role in respiratory system diseases. This review aimed to summarize the main protective effects of resveratrol in respiratory system diseases, including its anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, antioxidant, antifibrotic, antihypertensive, and anticancer activities. We found that resveratrol plays a protective role in the respiratory system through a variety of mechanisms, and so it may become a new drug for the treatment of respiratory system diseases. Keywords: respiratory system diseases, resveratrol, inflammation, apoptosis, oxidation

WebMD on COVID-19 CNS symptoms

It's mainstream recognition that this is a danger to people, and that brainstem involvement may be one of the reasons people stop breathing. Personally, I suspect from what I have read that its a significant cause of mortality in COVID-19. If we can protect the brain, prevent apoptosis, far fewer people may die.

"Overshoot and collapse"? Was "The Limits to Growth" right or wrong?

The advocates for extreme capitalism act as if the often bad outcomes accruing to the "losers" of globalization are somehow carved in stone and cannot be changed. This is just plan wrong. They hide GATS and similar deals because its mostly because of it that things are stuck in this rut.

A tale of two treaties

I stumbled across this essay from 2005 because its literally one of just two instances of the term "services of general economic interest" left on the web. I seriously think that search engines are scrubbing instances of these terms that are essential to understanding GATS and similar deals. (in this case the governmental authority exclusion) Why are they doing that, why do you think they are, to deceive you and me, that's why.

Fake "Public Option" scheme trotted out every four years to hide the GATS lock-in for another four years.

What they call in Europe "services of general economic interest". Why can't it work here? Because the EU services were pre-existing to GATS, so are grandfathered in. If they made any changes, like Brexit, they would break too. Just ike the UK's have been gradually being privatized. And like us, they are not allowed to create any new ones unless they modify their GATS commitments, and if they had committed healthcare they likely have to pay a high price for doing so.

11 National Associations of Healthcare Workers Issue Letter demanding More protections for Health Workers.

To raise the "standard of care" (of how we treat) all professionals we need to stop the agenda that is embedding a trade agreement agenda of forcing all domestic regulations to the global least common denominator as a precursor to globalizing them. It aims to increase profits greatly by replacing our domestically grown professionals with ones from the developing world (taking them from countries that desperately need them) - One of the reasons they want to do this is is precisely to prevent them from having input on all sorts of things- including things like this.

Urgent Warning on jobs and the future.

The future of the US middle class is endangered by the 1995 GATS trade agreement. Our participation in this agreement and others that are related to it could throw the US in to a much greater pandemonium than COVID-19. This could happen any day. They are poised to offshore a great many jobs because its so much more profitable. Many of those jobs are thought to be stable but they cant be as long as the governments of the world are working behind peoples backs to trade away decent jobs. (For what, kickbacks?). People are currently entering these professions precisely because they pay well.

Some analyses of domestic regulation disciplines – compilation for MC11 (2017)

This is a recent analysis of proposed (by a number of countries) Disciplines on Domestic Regulation from Sanya Reid Smith of TWN, an NGO that has been involved in WTO matters for a long time. It was made before the recent WTO Ministerial Conference in Buenos Aires. You can see that its the WTO which is disciplining the countries domestic regulations. ------------------------------------------ Introduction Domestic regulation disciplines on services are being negotiated in a number of trade agreements including at the World Trade Organization (WTO), in the Trade in Services Agreement (TISA) 1 and in other free trade agreements (FTAs) such as the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) 2 and those being negotiated by the European Union (EU) 3 . It seems that domestic regulation disciplines (DRD) will also be negotiated at the Eleventh WTO Ministerial Conference (MC11) from 10-13 December 2017 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. 4 The European Union, Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland etc (‘EU et al’) released their DRD proposed text on 1 December 2017. 5 "These proposed DRD would restrict laws and regulations re services licensing etc, even non-discriminatory laws which apply to domestic and foreign companies equally. Yet, as United Nations Conference on Trade And Development (UNCTAD) staff note, services regulation is important for a number of reasons including: protecting consumers, ensuring universal access to essential services cultural diversity, quality, safety, correcting market failures (eg: information asymmetry where the service provider has more information than the consumer, natural monopolies, negative externalities (eg environmental degradation from transport) where those not directly involved suffer costs). 6 After highlighting that many regulatory frameworks are still at an emerging stage in developing countries the UNCTAD staff conclude that ‘it is key for developing countries that international rules for services trade preserve the right to regulate (RtR) and grant the necessary policy space to experiment in the search for those policies that best suit individual countries’ specific, developmental needs.’ Given this, the UNCTAD staff note that ‘one would expect developing countries to take a cautious, rather than an offensive approach towards the development of these disciplines, with their main goal to preserve the RtR.’ 7 This compilation includes excerpts from existing analyses of the same DRD proposed in the WTO or in TISA." ----------------------------------- Compiled by Sanya Reid Smith, Third World Network

The Necessity Test The following communication has been received from the delegation of Korea with the request that it be circulated to the Members of the Working Party on Domestic Regulation.

COMMUNICATION FROM THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA 1. There have been many constructive discussions on how to define the “necessity test” in the context of domestic regulation for trade in services. The proposals made by Canada, Australia, and EC have each contributed to stimulating and advancing the discussions in this area. However, as each proposal and relevant agreement uses different wording for outlining and defining the necessity test, there has been some confusion as to the exact meaning and implications of its use. 2. Korea is of the view that the different wording – such as “trade-restrictive” or “burdensome,” – despite some variance in nuance and focus, does not differ in their implications. This paper thus aims to clarify any differences that exist, elaborate on the possible alternatives that can be used, and suggest a draft provision for the necessity test that could be used in establishing multilateral rules for domestic regulation. 3. In the meantime, there still remain unresolved issues like what should be considered a “legitimate policy objective,” or what factors should be considered to determine the feasibility of an alternative measure. For an effective and strict application of the necessity test, these two issues need to be resolved. However, they will have to be discussed at another time.

Bernie Sanders should not drop out for a very simple reason. Doing so would be abandoning us to the "mercy" of a merciless and evil 32 year old scheme to turn our democracy and our world's present and future over to corporations and the oligarchs that run them, that most Americans would consider to be an unspeakable crime, literally, if they knew about it. But we don't.

Decades ago we were consigned to an unspeakable fate by the signing of certain "agreements" which nobody would have agreed with. Under a pretext of trade, they and their chilling effects on our regulatory freedom have been intentionally hidden from us.

harmonization

Harmonization in services, means a race to the "least common denominator" - ie. race to the bottom on everything, not a race to the top. It also means destruction of the social contract by stealth.

Access to Care After Massachusetts’ Health Care Reform: A Safety Net Hospital Patient Survey

J Gen Intern Med. 2012 Nov; 27(11): 1548–1554. Published online 2012 Jul 24. doi: 10.1007/s11606-012-2173-7 PMCID: PMC3475814 PMID: 22825807 ------------------------- Access to Care After Massachusetts’ Health Care Reform: A Safety Net Hospital Patient Survey -------------------------- Danny McCormick, MD, MPH,corresponding author1,3 Assaad Sayah, MD,2,3 Hermione Lokko, BA,3 Steffie Woolhandler, MD, MPH,4 and Rachel Nardin, MD1,3 ------------------- Access to CARE and needed medications for people on fixed or low incomes with chronic medical conditions in urban areas DECLINED after Massachusetts' much hyped 2006 Health Care Reform, which was one of the models for ObamaCare. ----------------------------

Resveratrol was predicted to have possible activity against COVID-19 by a cutting edge medical informatics program looking for substances active against coronavirus induced heart damage.

Exploration of omics mechanism and drug prediction of coronavirus-induced heart failure based on clinical bioinformatics. --------------------- Journal: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. -------------------- 2020 Mar 31;48(0):E013. ----------------- doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112148-20200308-00172. [Epub ahead of print] ------------------------------------------- [Article in Chinese; Abstract available in Chinese from the publisher] ----------------------- Author information Chen XM1, Cao F2, Zhang HM1, Chen HR3, Zhang JD4, Zhi P3, Li ZY3, Wang YX5, Lu XC1. ---------------------- Abstract in English, Chinese Objective: Present study investigated the mechanism of heart failure associated with coronavirus infection and predicted potential effective therapeutic drugs against heart failure associated with coronavirus infection. Methods: Coronavirus and heart failure were searched in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and omics data were selected to meet experimental requirements. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed using the Limma package in R language to screen for differentially expressed genes. The two sets of differential genes were introduced into the R language cluster Profiler package for gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto gene and genome encyclopedia (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Two sets of intersections were taken. A protein interaction network was constructed for all differentially expressed genes using STRING database and core genes were screened. Finally, the apparently accurate treatment prediction platform (EpiMed) independently developed by the team was used to predict the therapeutic drug. Results: The GSE59185 coronavirus data set was searched and screened in the GEO database, and divided into wt group, ΔE group, Δ3 group, Δ5 group according to different subtypes, and compared with control group. After the difference analysis, 191 up-regulated genes and 18 down-regulated genes were defined. The GEO126062 heart failure data set was retrieved and screened from the GEO database. A total of 495 differentially expressed genes were screened, of which 165 were up-regulated and 330 were down-regulated. Correlation analysis of differentially expressed genes between coronavirus and heart failure was performed. After cross processing, there were 20 GO entries, which were mainly enriched in virus response, virus defense response, type Ⅰ interferon response, γ interferon regulation, innate immune response regulation, negative regulation of virus life cycle, replication regulation of viral genome, etc . There are 5 KEGG pathways, mainly interacting with tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, cytokine and receptor interaction, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, human giant cells viral infection related. All differentially expressed genes were introduced into the SREING online analysis website for protein interaction network analysis, and core genes such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, IL-10, IL17, TNF, interferon regulatory factor 9, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3, radical s-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2, c-x-c motif chemokine ligand 10, caspase 3 and other genes were screened. The drugs predicted by EpiMed's apparent precision treatment prediction platform for disease-drug association analysis are mainly TNF-α inhibitors, resveratrol, ritonavir, paeony, retinoic acid, forsythia, and houttuynia cordata. Conclusions: The abnormal activation of multiple inflammatory pathways may be the cause of heart failure in patients after coronavirus infection. Resveratrol, ritonavir, retinoic acid, amaranth, forsythia, houttuynia may have therapeutic effects. Future basic and clinical research is warranted to validate present results and hypothesis. KEYWORDS: Bioinformatics; Coronavirus infections; Drug prediction; Heart failure PMID: 32228827 DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112148-20200308-00172

Synthesis of stilbene derivatives with inhibition of SARS coronavirus replication.

Eur J Med Chem. 2006 Sep;41(9):1084-9. Epub 2006 Jul 27. Synthesis of stilbene derivatives with inhibition of SARS coronavirus replication. Li YQ1, Li ZL, Zhao WJ, Wen RX, Meng QW, Zeng Y. Author information Abstract Stilbene derivatives have wide range of activities. In an effort to find other potential activities of this kind of compounds, 17 derivatives, including resveratrol, were synthesized. Twelve of them were evaluated for their antiviral potential against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-induced cytopathicity in Vero E6 cell culture. The result showed that SARS virus was totally inhibited by compounds 17 and 19 (<or=0.5 mg ml(-1)) and no significant cytotoxic effects were observed in vitro. PMID: 16875760 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2006.03.024 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on Google+

Covid-19 and the Digestive System.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Mar 25. doi: 10.1111/jgh.15047. [Epub ahead of print] Covid-19 and the Digestive System. Wong SH1,2, Lui RN1,2, Sung JJ1,2. Author information Abstract The novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) is currently causing a major pandemic. It is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a member of the Betacoronavirus genus that also includes the SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While patients typically present with fever and a respiratory illness, some patients also report gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhoea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Studies have identified the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool specimens of infected patients, and its viral receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was found to be highly expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells. These suggest that SARS-CoV-2 can actively infect and replicate in the gastrointestinal tract. This has important implications to the disease management, transmission, and infection control. In this article, we review the important gastrointestinal aspects of the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Covid-19; coronavirus; diarrhoea; gastrointestinal infection; pneumonia PMID: 32215956 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.15047 Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on Google+

Review article: Gastrointestinal features in COVID-19 and the possibility of faecal transmission.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Mar 29. doi: 10.1111/apt.15731. [Epub ahead of print] Review article: Gastrointestinal features in COVID-19 and the possibility of faecal transmission. Tian Y1, Rong L1, Nian W1, He Y1. Author information Abstract BACKGROUND: There is little published evidence on the gastrointestinal features of COVID-19. AIMS: To report on the gastrointestinal manifestations and pathological findings of patients with COVID-19 and discuss the possibility of faecal transmission METHODS: We have reviewed gastrointestinal features of, and faecal test results in, COVID-19 from case reports and retrospective clinical studies relating to the digestive system published since the outbreak. RESULTS: With an incidence of 3%(1/41)-79% (159/201), gastrointestinal symptoms of COVID-19 included anorexia 39.9%(55/138)-50.2%(101/201), diarrhoea 2%(2/99)-49.5%(146/295), vomiting 3.6%(5/138)-66.7%(4/6), nausea 1%(1/99)-29.4%(59/201), abdominal pain 2.2%(3/138)-6.0%(12/201), and gastrointestinal bleeding 4%(2/52)-13.7%(10/73). Diarrhoea was the most common gastrointestinal symptom in children and adults, with a mean duration of 4.1 ± 2.5 days, and was observed before and after diagnosis. Vomiting was more prominent in children. 3.6%(5/138)-15.9%(32/201) of adult patients presented vomiting and 6.5%(2/31)-66.7%(4/6) of children. Adult and children patients can present with digestive symptoms in the absence of respiratory symptoms. The incidence of digestive manifestations was higher in the later than in the early stage of the epidemic, but no differences in digestive symptoms among different regions were found. Among the group of patients with a higher proportion of severe cases, the proportion of gastrointestinal symptoms in severe patients was higher than that in non-severe patients (anorexia 66.7% vs 30.4%; abdominal pain 8.3% vs 0%); while in the group of patients with a lower severe rate, the proportion of gastrointestinal symptoms were similar in severe and non-severe cases (nausea and vomiting 6.9% vs 4.6%; diarrhoea 5.8% vs 3.5%). ACE2 receptor and virus nucleocapsid protein was detected in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, and infectious virus particles were isolated from faeces. Faecal PCR testing was as accurate as respiratory specimen PCR detection. About 36%(5/14)-53%(39/73) faecal PCR becomes positive, 2-5 days later than sputum PCR positive. Faecal excretion persisted after sputum excretion in 23%(17/73)-82%(54/66) patients for 1-11 days. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with COVID-19, and had an increased prevalence in the later stage of the recent epidemic. SARS-CoV-2 enters gastrointestinal epithelial cells, and the faeces of COVID-19 patients were infectious. PMID: 32222988 DOI: 10.1111/apt.15731

Neuroinfection may potentially contribute to pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of COVID-19.

Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2020 Mar 29:e13473. doi: 10.1111/apha.13473. [Epub ahead of print] Neuroinfection may potentially contribute to pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of COVID-19. Steardo L1,2, Steardo L Jr3, Zorec R4,5, Verkhratsky A5,6. Author information Abstract The new coronavirus, classified as SARS-CoV-2 that emerged in Hubei province in China, causes a new coronavirus disease, which was termed COVID-19 by WHO on February 11, 2020. COVID-19 claimed almost 19000 lives around the world by March 25, 2020. PMID: 32223077 DOI: 10.1111/apha.13473

authoritarian bargain

Dictatorships stay in power by striking an economic bargain with their elites, who agree to give up freedom in return for material advantages over the other residents of these often remarkably poor countries, often in the form of patronage arrangements.

The Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Viability of the SARS Coronavirus

The main route of transmission of SARS CoV infection is presumed to be respiratory droplets. However the virus is also detectable in other body fluids and excreta. The stability of the virus at different temperatures and relative humidity on smooth surfaces were studied. The dried virus on smooth surfaces retained its viability for over 5 days at temperatures of 22–25°C and relative humidity of 40–50%, that is, typical air-conditioned environments. However, virus viability was rapidly lost (>3 log10) at higher temperatures and higher relative humidity (e.g., 38°C, and relative humidity of >95%). The better stability of SARS coronavirus at low temperature and low humidity environment may facilitate its transmission in community in subtropical area (such as Hong Kong) during the spring and in air-conditioned environments. It may also explain why some Asian countries in tropical area (such as Malaysia, Indonesia or Thailand) with high temperature and high relative humidity environment did not have major community outbreaks of SARS.

Hidden Holocaust: Young Californian, turned away by urgent care facility because he was uninsured dies of cardiac arrest due to coronavirus

[WE HAVE GATS AND DISHONEST POLITICIANS AND MEDIA TO THANK FOR THIS] We still don’t know much about the 17-year-old who may have died of COVID-19 in California. He lived in the city of Lancaster; his father, also sick, is an Uber driver. He had no known preexisting conditions, and no health insurance either, according to a new Gizmodo report. In a YouTube video, Rex Parris, the mayor of Lancaster, suggested the teenager’s lack of insurance contributed to his death. When the sick teen reported to urgent care, staff allegedly turned him away. “He didn’t have insurance, so they did not treat him,” Parris said. Instead, they told him to go to a nearby public hospital. He tried. But the delay may have cost him his life. “En route to AV Hospital, he went into cardiac arrest. When he got to AV Hospital they were able to revive him and keep him alive for about six hours,” Parris continued. “But by the time he got there, it was too late.” Though the teen tested positive for COVID-19, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have launched an investigation into his death to rule out any other medical factors in his death. But he wouldn’t be the only COVID-19 patient to die partly because of a lack of health insurance. A Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, woman died from the virus after she refused to go to the hospital for care. “She didn’t have insurance. She thought she might not be able to pay the bills,” her son told the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. There are probably other cases like theirs, and behind each one, a person killed by our collective failure to protect them. About 45 percent of American adults were either uninsured or underinsured in 2018, the Commonwealth Fund estimates. Those people are uniquely vulnerable to the effects of any pandemic. They’re more likely to wait to seek care for fear of the expense, or to go entirely without it, and their ranks will increase over the next weeks and months. Because we tie health insurance to employment, a COVID-connected recession could potentially strand thousands, if not millions, without secure access to health care in the middle of a pandemic. Our health-care system is not the best in the world, as the New York Times credulously claimed a few days ago. It is failing. Heavily privatized, dependent on the whims of industry and the vagaries of insurance companies, it is collapsing under the weight of a crisis. Rural hospitals continue to close for lack of funds, and leave the communities they serve without quick access to care. Even in wealthy, urban areas, doctors and nurses don’t have enough masks, enough ventilators, enough protective shields, enough scrubs. In Philadelphia, city officials tried and failed to convince the millionaire owner of Paladin Healthcare, Joel Freedman, to lease them the public hospital he purchased and closed last summer. Sprawling corporations donate masks here and there. But charity can’t plug the gaps through which the poor and the dying fall. Health care is a public good. Policy-makers just don’t treat it that way, and now we’re reaping what they’ve sown.

N-Acetyl-Cysteine, an amino acid nutritional supplement, could be investigated in fighting the COVID-19 epidemic

NAC as it is called is a food and the most important of several precursors of an important chemical in your body, glutathione. Along with glutamine, it may improve gut barrier function. and regardless, it is unlikely to hurt anything. It's proven itself very useful in colds where its sold in effervescent tablets for that use in Europe. They are popular. The highest natural source of cysteine is whey protein.

Evidence of the COVID-19 Virus Targeting the CNS: Tissue Distribution, Host–Virus Interaction, and Proposed Neurotropic Mechanisms

The recent outbreak of coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has gripped the world with apprehension and has evoked a scare of epic proportion regarding its potential to spread and infect humans worldwide. As we are in the midst of an ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, scientists are struggling to understand how it resembles and differs from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) at the genomic and transcriptomic level. In a short time following the outbreak, it has been shown that, similar to SARS-CoV, COVID-19 virus exploits the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to gain entry inside the cells. This finding raises the curiosity of investigating the expression of ACE2 in neurological tissue and determining the possible contribution of neurological tissue damage to the morbidity and mortality caused by COIVD-19. Here, we investigate the density of the expression levels of ACE2 in the CNS, the host–virus interaction and relate it to the pathogenesis and complications seen in the recent cases resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak. Also, we debate the need for a model for staging COVID-19 based on neurological tissue involvement. Keywords: Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, ACE2 tissue distribution, host−virus interaction, spike protein

Our right to regulate drug prices was signed away when we joined the WTO.

The TRIPS agreement is part of the WTO. It was meant to jack up the prices of drugs all around the world. GATS (another WTO agreement) gave countries another bargaining chip they could use, jobs. . A logical approach would be for us to dump both GATS and TRIPS at the same time. That would give the poor countries (And US) back our right to regulate prices and get affordable drugs, we could keep the potentially millions of jobs that could end up being traded away in GATS. We would also get back our right to have affordable healthcare, and prevent Medicare and Social Security from being privatized.

WTO knows what evil lurks in the hearts of men: TRIPS strikes again "Before 1995, drug companies were required to sell drugs funded with public money at a reasonable price. Under the Clinton administration, that changed."

"Before 1995, drug companies were required to sell drugs funded with public money at a reasonable price. Under the Clinton administration, that changed." Here they are hiding (WTO) GATS and TRIPS caused dysfunction. Repeating a big lie that Clinton care was an attempt to fix healthcare, when GATS was really rigging it so it could not be fixed. Both parties participated in this huge theft and most likely are still cooperating today to hide it. Just remember TRIPS caused 10 million deaths from AIDS not long ago. Jacking up, way up the prices of cheap to manufacture drugs (less than $0.33 - a day ) through the sky is essential to a global aim of debt slavery and dare I say it, no I better not. Its an unspeakably horrible thing. --------------------------------------------- "Then in 2000, Sanders authored and passed a bipartisan amendment in the House to reimpose the “reasonable pricing” rule. In the Senate, a similar measure was pushed by the late Paul Wellstone of Minnesota." ------------------------------------------ “Many in Congress find it hard to argue with Sanders’ line that ‘Americans must pay twice for life-saving drugs, first as taxpayers to develop the drug and then as consumers to pad pharmaceutical profits,’” Nature wrote at the time." ---------------------------------------------------- "Then-Sen. Joe Biden of Delaware voted to table Wellstone’s amendment, and it was defeated 56-39." -------------------------------------------------- And this game goes on to this day. HOW STUPID WE ARE. the rest of the world knows exactly whats going on, but thanks to a 100% complicit, corprate media, we still don't. the WTO has taken over Read "global economic governance" in the Glossary. This is why the two Presidential candidates we are being presented with are both totally unacceptable. Its all a big lie. WTO rules the issue now so guess what, they will pretend to disagree again and again and never fix ANYTHING. How could they, its been taken out of their hands! They have rigged everything, including drug pricing (via the TRIPS agreement) and health insurance, via GATS.. Buy or Die.

Novel coronavirus and central nervous system.

An outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) that emerged in Wuhan has rapidly spread throughout China and has now become a global public health concern. As of the early March, a total of 100,000 cases have been confirmed in multiple countries. Clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV that respiratory symptoms, such as cough, are the most common.[1] This is consistent with the finding that the majority of patients are virus-positive in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs suggesting it mainly invades and infects the respiratory system, a hypothesis supported by pathological data.[2] In addition, it has been reported that patients' stool has tested positive for 2019-nCoV, indicating that the virus could spread from the respiratory tract to the digestive tract, or that individuals could be infected via the faecal-oral route. However, the neuroinvasive potential of 2019-nCoV remains poorly understood. PMID: 32216009 DOI: 10.1111/ene.14227

Foreign Free Riders and the High Price of US Medicines

We can find no evidence to support the widely believed claims from industry that lower prices in other industrialised countries do not allow companies to recover their R&D costs; so they have to charge Americans more to make up the difference and pay for these "foreign free riders." We also explain why the claims themselves contradict the economic nature of the pharmaceutical industry. The latest report from the UK Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme shows that drug companies in the United Kingdom invest more of their revenues from domestic sales in research and development than do companies in the US. Prices in the UK are much lower than those in the US yet profits remain robust. Companies in other countries also manage to recover their research and development costs, maintain high profits, and sell drugs at substantially lower prices than in the US. For example, in Canada the 35 companies that are members of the brand name industry association report that income from domestic sales is, on average, about 10 times greater than research and development costs. They have profits higher than makers of computer equipment and telecommunications carriers despite prices being about 40% lower than in the US.

UPDATED WITH WARNING: French study shows hydroxychloroquine sulfate, for 10 days + azithromycin clears 97% of patients of virus. But may cause potentially dangerous cardiac arrhythmia if not taken under close supervision by MDs.

(Note: This drug may cause cardiac arrhythmia!) Both of these drugs are only available with a prescription and should only be taken under a doctors supervision. ---In the French study, patients were given a combination of 200 milligrams of oral hydroxychloroquine sulfate, three times a day for 10 days, combined with azithromycin. Five hundred milligrams of the (azithromycin) was given to patients on day one, followed by 250 milligrams per day over the next four days. Virus cultures taken from patient’s respiratory samples were negative in 97.5 percent of patients at day 5, allowing the rapid discharge of patients from highly contagious hospital wards, the researchers wrote in the study. This is this French infectious disease institute's second study of this two drug combination.

Many US cities may be worse than Wuhan.

Officials who cannot deal with the mess they have created by our corporations first healthcare policy and do what it takes to prevent this nationally, especially in the least affluent areas, should step down. Every life is valuable.

DS503

DS503 is a WTO dispute that was filed in 2016 by India against the US. It contains a number of innocent-looking requests that when investigated...

Trump's Indadequate Response

Mr. Trump is known for undermining scientists, institutions and the media. He shut down the White House National Security Council’s entire global health security unit in 2018, an error that is perhaps going to cost him dearly now. He can only sincerely hope that “one day, it’s like a miracle, it will disappear”.

Drug Companies Will Make a Killing From Coronavirus Unless we fix the system, American taxpayers will get gouged on a vaccine they paid to produce.

Opinion Drug Companies Will Make a Killing From Coronavirus Unless we fix the system, American taxpayers will get gouged on a vaccine they paid to produce. By Mariana Mazzucato and Azzi Momenghalibaf Ms. Mazzucato is a professor at University College London and the author of “The Value of Everything.” Ms. Momenghalibaf is a senior program officer at the Open Society Public Health Program. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/18/opinion/coronavirus-vaccine-cost.html

in competition with one or more service suppliers

What does "in competition with one or more service suppliers" mean in GATS and other FTAS that borrow the GATS definition? (of "services supplied in the exercise of governmental authority" i.e. public services )