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Globalization and the Black Market Organ Trade: When Even a Kidney Can't Pay the Bills

Karen A. Hudson - In "Universal Design: The Work of Disability in an Age of Globalization," Michael Davidson links disability to the negative impacts of globalization. He considers the organ trade, in which bodies become commodities in an international market reflecting wealth and poverty, and comments on the silence about disability in literature on globalization (121). So how are people with disabilities involved in — or products of — the organ trade, and what aspects of globalization are creating and exploiting this international community of disabled people? The implications of the silence in regard to disability and the organ trade are significant, because aspects of globalization — particularly the spreading of a competitive market-based economy and the resulting privatization of healthcare — are perpetuating a hierarchy based on wealth and privilege that is exploiting poverty-stricken individuals for their organs. These exploited individuals are now disabled not only by the absence of an organ, but also productively within the community. This lowered productivity stems not from the state of disability itself, but rather from a lack of proper follow-up medical care that may result in further health complications. In turn, these health complications more often than not perpetuate the indebted state from which donors were hoping to free themselves in the first place.

A look at the "affordable" "health insurance" the global corporate state has in store for the poorer of us.

Surprised? The US health care system is literally on a very "fast track" to total and mandatory crapification, in the form of shedding by the government of all "moral hazard" by the pretext of irreversible services liberalization (total one way, binding privatization and globalization). Weve already been sold down the river - starting decades ago with GATS. Negotiations to pile it higher and deeper - until our hands look just like the sculpture on the beach in Punta Del Este where it all began, back in September 1986, are ongoing. And have been for all that time. This is not a little thing, its a global war on the very idea of a middle class. Far more thefts in the form of more "trade and investment agreements" are ongoing. Its an urgent race by the world's oligarchies to steal as much as possible before people wise up, and in the US, both Fast Track expires, and the November election. We could see announcements within the next couple of weeks. True to form, we and many other countries are being fed an endless pile of bullshit. This ad - from Hindu Business Line was actually more informative than many US ads for similar "crapsurance" -if you read between its lines. Read it.

Global trade in patients is ramping up, could have trade agreement implications

Because of the GATS agreement. See "the Scope of GATS and its Obligations" also linked, here for some more info on the legal aspects of what is now called euphemistically "patient mobility" - Its covered under the GATS. The Agreement may lock in international trade in patients when it occurs, and its "not more burdensome than necessary" provisions forcing governments to allow and pay for the offshoring of poorer patients (and possibly prisoners) and blocking "Medicare For All" like systems, which would keep patients in their home countries. (unless single payer pre-existed the GATS agreement, like in Canada) See "patient mobility" and "Medical tourism" keywords.

Insurance developments that could lead us into COSTLY FTA-lock-in

Which would block any further changes in health insurance, because we have accepted the faulty premise that foreign corporations deserve more than the American people who have been dying at the rate of 50-150 people a day because of their GATS scam. Work in progress

The Scope of GATS and of Its Obligations by Bregt Natens, Jan Wouters

Bregt Natens, Jan Wouters - KU Leuven - Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies Date Written: August 1, 2013 Abstract The GATS preamble already highlights the inevitable conflict between on the one hand achieving progressively higher levels of liberalization of trade in services in order to expand trade in services and promote growth, and on the other hand the right to introduce new regulation to meet national policy objectives. Hence, it was clear from the outset that the balance between trade liberalisation and domestic regulatory autonomy would be key in interpreting the constructively ambiguous GATS. The outcome of this exercise depends on three factors: the interpretation of (i) GATS’ overarching objectives, (ii) of the general scope of GATS and of the obligations arising from it (and the exceptions to them) and (iii) of the inherent individual flexibility of GATS. Whilst also touching on the first, this contribution mainly focuses on the second factor by addressing the scope of GATS, of its unconditional obligations, of obligations applying to sectors for which specific commitments have been scheduled and of obligations in GATS Annexes. Additionally, it provides an overview of the structure of GATS obligations. The third factor is mainly addressed throughout textboxes which provide an illustrative insight into how the European Union has used the inherent GATS flexibility to shape its obligations. Keywords: WTO, World Trade Organization, GATS, General Agreement on Trade in Services, services, scope, obligations, governmental authority exception

Ellen Gould discusses GATS on Talking Stick TV.

Video - Ellen Gould is a trade expert whose insight here is quite accurate. See what she tells us here about domestic regulations, technical standrds, licensing, medical standards, everything. Lots of info on what they want to do with healthcare. The WTO could sanction us if we wanted our doctors to meet higher standards than those in the developing countries. (around 25:00) The WTO also wants us to allow for profit offshoring of poor patients. Which would be subject to the same problems as the for profit system does now, except likely worse, with less accountability.

Patient Mobility Beyond Calais: Health Services Under WTO Law by Markus Krajewski

"The paper analyses the impact of WTO law on transnational patient mobility by transplanting the Watts case of the European Court of Justice into WTO law. The first part of the paper concerns the question whether medical or hospital treatment abroad concerns “trade in (health) services” in the meaning of the GATS. This part identifies the legal construction of this notion through the four modes of supply and also gives a short factual account of the scope and structure of trade in health services on a global level. The next part will ask more directly which measures fall into the scope of the GATS. In particular, it has to be determined whether the exclusion of services supplied in the exercise of governmental authority from the GATS influences the application of the agreement to health and medical services. Having determined under which circumstances the GATS applies to measures affecting the cross-border supply of health services, the subsequent part of the chapter discusses the substantive obligations of the GATS. After a short overview of the main principles of the GATS, the chapter will provide an in depth inquiry into the specific commitments in health services of the EU and other WTO Members, because only the exact analysis of the limitations and qualifications of these schedules allows us to clearly determine the impact of the GATS on the cross-border to provision of health services. In addition, the potential of the general exception clause of the GATS to justify regulations of health systems which violate GATS obligations needs to be ascertained. Lastly, the legal status of GATS in the EU legal order, in particular the contentious issue of direct effect, needs to be assessed, because only if the GATS is directly applicable would a patient who received medical treatment abroad be able to rely on the agreement to claim reimbursement of the costs of said treatment."